by Dinesh Thakur Category: Multiple Access

Multiplexing or (muxing) - To combine multiple signals (analog or digital) for transmission over a single line or media. A common type of multiplexing combines several low-speed signals for transmission over a single high-speed connection. In other words, we can say that Muxing is used for sharing of a medium and its link by two or more devices. It can provide both Efficiency and Privacy.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Multiple Access

Carrier Sensed Multiple Access (CSMA) : CSMA is a network access method used on shared network topologies such as Ethernet to control access to the network. Devices attached to the network cable listen (carrier sense) before transmitting. If the channel is in use, devices wait before transmitting. MA (Multiple Access) indicates that many devices can connect to and share the same network. All devices have equal access to use the network when it is clear.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Multiple Access

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol suite is the engine for the Internet and networks worldwide. Its simplicity and power has led to its becoming the single network protocol of choice in the world today. TCP/IP is a set of protocols developed to allow cooperating computers to share resources across the network. 



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Multiple Access

To reduce the impact of collisions on the network performance, Ethernet uses an algorithm called CSMA with Collision Detection (CSMA / CD): CSMA/CD is a protocol in which the station senses the carrier or channel before transmitting frame just as in persistent and non-persistent CSMA. If the channel is busy, the station waits. it listens at the same time on communication media to ensure that there is no collision with a packet sent by another station. In a collision, the issuer immediately cancel the sending of the package. This allows to limit the duration of collisions: we do not waste time to send a packet complete if it detects a collision. After a collision, the transmitter waits again silence and again, he continued his hold for a random number; but this time the random number is nearly double the previous one: it is this called back-off (that is to say, the "decline") exponential. In fact, the window collision is simply doubled (unless it has already reached a maximum). From a packet is transmitted successfully, the window will return to its original size.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Multiple Access

• CSMA/CA protocol is used in wireless networks because they cannot detect the collision so the only solution is collision avoidance.

• CSMA/CA avoids the collisions using three basic techniques.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Multiple Access

CDM is widely used in so-called second-generation (2G) and third-generation 3G wireless communications. The technology is used in ultra-high-frequency (UHF) cellular telephone systems in the 800-MHz and 1.9-GHz bands. This is a combination of analog-to-digital conversion and spread spectrum technology.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Multiple Access

CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) also called spread-spectrum and code division multiplexing, one of the competing transmission technologies for digital MOBILE PHONES. The transmitter mixes the packets constituting a message into the digital signal stream in an order determined by a PSEUDO-RANDOM NUMBER sequence that is also known to the intended receiver, which uses. it to extract those parts of the signal intended for itself. Hence each different random sequence corresponds to a separate communication channel. CDMA is most used in the USA.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Multiple Access

Random Access, which is to issue a completely random time, relies on the Aloha method. The latter takes its name from an experiment performed on a network connecting the various islands of the Hawaiian Archipelago early 1970. In this method, when a coupler has information to transmit, it sends it without worry about other users. If there is a collision, that is to say superposition of two signals or more users, the signals become indecipherable and are lost. They are subsequently transmitted, as shown in Figure, in which the couplers 1, 2 and 3 collide. The coupler 1 transmits its field first because he shot the smallest timer. Then, the module 2 emits, and its signals collide with the coupler 1. Both derive a random time of retransmission. The coupler 3 is listening while the couplers 1 and 2 are silent, so that the frame of the coupler 3 passes successfully. Technical aloha is the origin of all the random access methods.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Multiple Access

Telephone line or telephone circuit (or just line or circuit within the industry) is a single-user circuit on a telephone communication system. Typically this refers to the physical wire or other signaling medium connecting the user's telephone apparatus to the telecommunications network, and usually also implies a single telephone number for billing purposes reserved for that user.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Multiple Access

• In FDMA, the available bandwidth is divided into various frequency bands.

• Each station is allocated a band to send its data. This band is reserved for that station for all the time.

 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.