LDP (Label Distribution Protocol) is the reference distribution protocol which tends to become the most used in MPLS standard. This protocol takes account of unicast and multicast addresses. Routing is explicit and is managed by the output nodes. Exchanges are carried out under the TCP to ensure acceptable quality. [Read more…] about What is LDP (Label Distribution Protocol)?
MPLS (MultiProtocol Label-Switching) is a standard proposed by IETF, the Internet standards body for all architectures and high-level protocols (IP, IPX, AppleTalk, etc.). However, his most typical implementation concerns the IP protocol only. [Read more…] about What is MPLS (MultiProtocol Label-Switching) ?
IP-switching developed by Ipsilon Networks, Inc. it was the first version of the label-switching. In this architecture, the road is determined by the IP flow. IP-switch nodes replace the routers is working in router mode to trace the path with the first IP packet flow, or by ATM cell switching mode, for all the cells which follow the route path. The first IP packet is routed normally, such as an Internet network. The route is determined by an Internet routing algorithm. [Read more…] about What is IP Switching?
MPOA (MultiProtocol Over ATM) is a protocol developed by the ATM Forum. More complex than NHRP he uses the techniques described in the previous sections by uniting and complementing to achieve IP packet transport or other protocol packets, such as IPX, over an ATM network interconnection. The road can be determined either by a centralized route server solution type, either by a distributed solution using the PNNI or NHRP protocols. [Read more…] about What is MPOA (MultiProtocol Over ATM)?
The Ethernet switch or Ethernet FDSE (Full Duplex Switched Ethernet), was born in the early 1990s before the advent of switched Ethernet, shared Ethernet networks were cut into shared subnets autonomous, interconnected by bridges. Therefore, the traffic was multiplied by the number of subnets. [Read more…] about Full Duplex Switched Ethernet (Ethernet FDSE)
The next field contains the reference made to the VCI / VPI (Virtual Channel Identifier / Virtual Path Identifier). The role of virtual paths is to provide semi-permanent connections. [Read more…] about Virtual and virtual path Circuit
As explained above, the cell is formed of exactly 53 bytes, comprising 5 bytes of header and 48 bytes of data. [Read more…] about ATM Cell Structure
Modulation has defined as the process of combining an input signal m (t) and a frequency carrier FC to produce an S (t) signal whose bandwidth is (usually) centred around FC. In the case of digital data, the justification of the modulation must be clear: it is necessary when there is only the possibility of analogue transmission, to convert the digital data into analogues. However, when the data is analogue, the justification is not so apparent. After all, voice signals are transmitted through telephone lines using their original spectrum (this is called baseband transmission). There are two main reasons: [Read more…] about What is Modulation? Different Types of Modulation Techniques
Duplex is a telecommunications term for communication channels that can be between two devices simplex, half-duplex, or full-duplex. [Read more…] about What is Duplex? Half-Duplex and Full-Duplex
Because the Layer 2 protocols depend heavily on the features originally specified for PPP, it is worth examining this protocol more closely. PPP was designed to send data across dial-up or dedicated point to- point connections. PPP encapsulates IP, IPX, and NetBEUI packets within PPP frames, and then transmits the PPP-encapsulated packets across a point-to-point link. PPP is used between a dial-up client and an NAS. [Read more…] about What are the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) four distinct phases?
The purpose of ATM is to provide high speed, low-delay multiplexing and switching networks to support any type of user traffic, such as voice, data or video applications. This is specifically designed as single technology for voice, video, and data. [Read more…] about ATM Structure
Cell relay is data transmission service that uses transmission technology referred to as Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). As the name suggests, the data transmission unit is a fixed length of data known as a cell. High-speed transmission compared to other services like frame relay is possible with the cell relay method. The cell relay is considered by most to be the transport service of the future. [Read more…] about Cell Relay – What is Cell Relay?
There are two main types of Public Domain Networks (PDN). [Read more…] about Packet Switching and Circuit Switching
Cell switching is associated with Asynchronous Transmission Mode (ATM) which is considered to be a high speed switching technology that attempted to overcome the speed problems faced by the shared media like Ethernet and FDDI. Cell switching uses a connection-oriented packet-switched network. [Read more…] about Cell Switching (ATM)
Datagram is better if numbers of packets are not very large. As it is a connectionless service there is no need to prior call set up. Therefore, It is more flexible and provides alternate route to avoid the congested part of the network. [Read more…] about Comparison between Virtual Circuit and Datagram
Virtual Circuit (VC) – In this type connection, DTE selects the links to be used before communication to connect a receiver just as in the case of telephone network. In other words, we may say that a pre-planned route established before any packets are sent. A communications arrangement in which data from a source user may be passed to a destination user over various real circuit configurations during a single period of communication and the Information about the routing of packets is stored in all nodes throughout the set-up phase. Virtual circuits generally set up on a per connection basis and are disconnected when the connection is terminated and after that, the information in the network is erased. However, a permanent virtual circuit can be established as an option to provide a dedicated link between two facilities. [Read more…] about Difference between Virtual Circuit (VC) and Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC)
The terminal connected to the packet switched network can communicate with multiple terminals at the same time using a single physical line. This makes it possible to set multiple logical paths called logical channels on a single physical line. [Read more…] about Logical Channels
Fiber optic technology is considered to meet the ever-increasing demand of bandwidth for the exchange of information and Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) provides solutions for the ever-increasing demand of bandwidth through optical networks. In optical communication” the analog of FDM is referred to as wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM). [Read more…] about Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)
A circuit is a path between two or more points along which an electrical current flows. In data communication, we may consider a circuit as a specific path between two or more points along which signals can be carried. The signals may be analog, binary or digital. It has been shown in the Figures, wherein the link between PC and modem, link between modem and CTO and so on constitutes a circuit. [Read more…] about What are Difference between Circuits, Channels and Multichanneling?
Circuit switching is a switching method in which a dedicated communication path in physical form between two stations within a network is established, maintained and terminated for each communication session. It has basically three phases as circuit establishment, data transfer and circuit disconnect. The most common example of circuit switching is the telephone network. [Read more…] about Circuit Switching – What is Circuit Switching?
Conceived in the 1960’s, packet switching is a more recent technology than circuit switching which addresses a disadvantage of circuit switching: the need to allocate resources for a circuit, thus incurring link capacity wastes when no data flows on a circuit. [Read more…] about Distinguish between Datagram Packet switching and virtual Circuit switching
Time space switching:- A time space (ts) switch takes the outputs of several time-division switches, for example, TSI switches and connects them as inputs as a space division switch. The effect of this paired arrangement is that packets can be swapped between different output lines. [Read more…] about What is Time space switching?
The majority of people, not having lines (cable or Ethernet) linked directly to the Internet, must use telephone lines (the most widely used network) to connect to the Internet. The connection is made using a modem, a device capable of converting digital data from the computer into analogue signals (that can circulate on telephone lines by amplitude or frequency modulation, in the same way as voice when you use the telephone). [Read more…] about PPP Protocol
You are familiar with the-concept of switching. Circuit switching is the study of data link layer. The services of networks are provided by using the concept of packet switching. [Read more…] about Packet Switching