Basics of Computer Networking

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Routing

In Routing Protocol, Routing is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send data on physical traffic. In different network operating system the network layer perform the function of protocol routing. In TCP/IP the IP protocol is the ability to form connections between different physical networks with the help of a Routing Protocol.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Routing

The distance-vector routing Protocol is a type of algorithm used by routing protocols to discover routes on an interconnected network. The primary distance-vector routing protocol algorithm is the Bellman-Ford algorithm. Another type of routing  protocol algorithm is the link-state approach.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Routing

HDLC - Short for High-level Data Link Control, a transmission protocol used at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI seven layer model for data communications. The HDLC protocol embeds information in a data frame that allows devices to control data flow and correct errors. HDLC is an ISO standard developed from the Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) standard proposed by IBM in the 1970's. HDLC NRM (also known as SDLC) .



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Routing

The SDLC or the Synchronous Data Link Control was first developed by IBM in 1975. It was modified by ISO and was named HDLC. Thus SDLC is a subset of HDLC and includes several minor additional features.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Services and Applications

A FQDN consists of a host, a second-level domain and top-level domain.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Services and Applications

A CNAME is simply an alias for a host record. The CNAMEs allow you to have more than one DNS name for each host record. The CNAME points to the parameter A. So if you change your IP address in the parameter A, all your CNAME records follow the new IP address of the parameter A.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Services and Applications

The IEEE 802.22 Working Group started its activities in 2004 with the aim of achieving a regional radio network. The frequency bands used are primarily the digital dividend, that is to say the frequency bands that will be freed when television will fully and finally digital. In France, it is planned for 2010. In the rest of the world, this should be spread between now and 2015.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Services and Applications

Today, hundreds of major companies market TCP / IP products. It is they who decide the placing on the market of new technology, not the researchers, as originally. The governance of the Internet has been completely redesigned in the late 2000s Authority over the Internet central coordination functions exercised by IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority). In fact, it's Jon Postel who held that office until his death in 1998. Today it is ICANN performs that function.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Services and Applications

In the late 1960s, the US Department of Defense decides to make a large network from a multitude of small networks, all different, which begin to abound everywhere in North America. We had to find a way to these networks coexist and give them an outdoor visibility, the same for all users. Hence the name of InterNetwork (interline), abbreviated as Internet, data this network of networks.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Services and Applications

The user generates IP packets, it is necessary to transport these IP packets to the ADSL modem. For this, we use an Ethernet frame, a PPP frame, a USB frame, or a superposition of these frames as a PPP frame encapsulated in an Ethernet frame or a PPP frame encapsulated in a USB frame.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Services and Applications

The metal lines have been used for decades for the transport of the telephone speech with a bandwidth of 3200 Hz. They are used today for transport, at the same time as the telephone, broadband data packets. The xDSL environment is devoted to terrestrial broadband connections, we give here in an introduction.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Services and Applications

Fragmentation occurs when you save a file containing more data than can fit into one contiguous (connected) space on the disk. When this happens, the drive splits the data into many pieces small enough to fit wherever it can find the next empty space. If that first space isn't large enough, it puts down the next piece at the next empty space, and so on and so on. This is actually quite an efficient method of making use of the entire disk, as you can imagine how quickly a disk would fill if the computer needed a contiguous space for each file.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Services and Applications

File sharing is when a person on one computer can use the files from another computer while the file is still on the other computer. The computers that want to share files with each other must be connected via a network.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Services and Applications

In a computer network,the file server is the computer responsible for storing and retrieving the files used by all the computers connected to the network.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Services and Applications

E-mail is short for electronic mail, mail you can send or receive directly on your computer. Yes, with e-mail people can actually write you letters and send them to your computer, and you can turn on your computer and go pick up your mail whenever it's convenient. Many a love affair has begun through e-mail. I know. It's really fun, too. And useful, of course. E-mail can be a verb too, as in "I e-mailed my lover a letter from Lhasa."



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Services and Applications

CompuServe (whose formal name is CompuServe Information Services, or CIS for short and sometimes CI$ for a statement) is a commercial online service that you can access through your modem. It has an incredible array of forums (sections devoted to particular interests), conferences, facilities for uploading and downloading information, and all the other benefits a powerful online service offers.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Services and Applications

The application of FILE COMPRESSION algorithms to digital sound files to reduce their required storage space and hence their download time over low-bandwidth communication links such as the Internet. Lossless audio compression can be achieved using exactly the same algorithms as for any other kind of digital data. However, as with visual images, compression is most effective when some quality is sacrificed (so-called LOSSY compression methods), and the most widely used compressed formats such as MP3 and REAL AUDIO use such methods to achieve compression ratios on the order of 60:1 to 80:1.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Services and Applications

A service provided on many Internet servers that permits a casual visitor to download files using the FTP file transfer protocol without needing to possess a named account or password. The user merely logs in under the name 'anonymous' or 'ftp' and uses his/her email address as the PASSWORD, and is then granted access to a restricted set of directories that have been reserved for public access (and which are typically separated from those used by the local users).



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Services and Applications

4G is a packet-switched technology that uses bandwidth much more efficiently, allowing each user's packets to complete for available bandwidth, and billing users for the amount of data transmitted. It also solves the non-standardization problems associated with 3G networks for voice, video, and data transmission.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Services and Applications

File transfer protocol is the way files are transferred from the server to the client across the network.

As good as Browsers are at reading web pages they are not so good when it comes to transferring large files over the Internet. For this FTP or File Transfer Protocol is needed.



 


About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.C.A, MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.