by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

The local loop is to connect users to the first node, router or switch, the operator with whom the customer has a subscription. Broadband solutions is shared between the ATM for fixed links and Ethernet for wireless backhaul. One of the objectives in the Ethernet local loop is replaced by the ATM Ethernet solutions, particularly in the xDSL modems.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

Definition:  General Packet Radio Service is a packet-based wireless communication service. It promises data rate up to 114 kbps. It is a standard technology which extends the Global system. It abbreviated as GPRS. It is designed to replace the current circuit-switched services.

General Packet Radio Service is a non-voice and high-speed technology which is useful for the GSM networks. We make use of GPRS so that we can enable connections which depend on the internet protocol. As we know, IP supports a wide variety of applications. We can send and receive the compressed data and large volume data over the mobile network by using GPRS as the packet switching system used. So, before sending the data, it breaks the whole data into packets and then shifts them through the network. Now the data again assembled at the recipient side.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

Definition: Storage area network is abbreviated as SAN. SAN is a network which is designed to attach computer storage devices such as disk array controllers and tape libraries to servers. SAN network can be accessed by multiple computers. It is a secure and high-speed data network. It is also known as SAN storage, SAN network, etc.
We assemble the storage area network by using three principal components:
•    Cabling
•    Host bus adapters
•    Switches
We attach the switches to storage arrays and servers. Generally, all storage arrays were hard disk drives but nowadays flash solid-state drives are used.

A storage area network is most commonly used for:
• For improving the availability of applications
• For enhancing the performance of applications like off-loading storage functions.
• For increasing the utilization of storage and its effectiveness which include consolidating storage resources, tiered storage, etc.
• For improving security and data protection
• For organizing Business Continuity Management activities.

Storage area network

Types of SAN (Storage area network)

The most commonly used SAN protocols are as follows:
Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP): it is the most widely used SAN protocol. It makes use of Fibre Channel transport protocol which is embedded with the SCSI commands. This protocol is deployed in 70 to 80% of the total SAN market.
Internet Small Computer System Interface: It is the another most common type of SAN protocol which is used in the SAN market. It is deployed in 10 to 15% of the total SAN market. This protocol encapsulates with the SCSI command inside an Ethernet frame. It also makes use of an IP Ethernet network for transport purpose.
Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE): it is deployed in less than 5% of the SAN market. It is somewhere similar to iSCSI as it also encapsulated with SCSI command inside an Ethernet frame.
Similarly, it also makes use of IP Ethernet network for transport.
Non-Volatile Memory Express over Fibre Channel (FC-NVMe): it is an interface protocol. We make use of this protocol for accessing the flash storage. We can access this flash storage via PCI Express (PCIe) bus. It supports tens of thousands of parallel queues. Each queue can help tens of thousands of concurrent commands.

SAN Use Cases

We deploy the storage area network in support of business-critical, performance-sensitive applications which are illustrated as below:
Oracle databases: Oracle databases are business-critical. It requires high performance and availability.
Large virtualization deployments using VMware, KVM, or Microsoft Hyper-V: This kind of environments extend to thousands of virtual machines. These machines run a broad range of operating system and applications. It has different performance requirements. The large virtual environments may concentrate on many forms.
SAP or other massive ERP or CRM environments: San architectures are ideal for customer resource management workloads and enterprise resource planning.
Microsoft SQL server databases: MS SQL Server database similar to Oracle database stores the most valuable data of the enterprises. So, they also require high performance and availability.
Large virtual desktop infrastructures (VDIs): it serves virtual desktops to large numbers. By doing the centralization of virtual desktops, the data protection and data security can be easily managed by the organizations.

Advantages of SAN

Storage virtualization: In this, the capacity of the server is not linked to the single storage devices. Now we can make use of large and consolidated storage pools for software applications.
High-speed disk technologies: we can consider FC (Fiber Channel) as an example for this. FC is a network that offers speed for retrieval of data is more than 5 Gbps. In this, we can directly transfer the data from the source device to the target device such that there is either decidedly less or no intervention of servers. Also, storage-to-storage data transfer is also available.
Centralized backup: it contains advanced backup features which includes block level and incremental backups, streamline IT system administrator responsibilities, etc., In this, the backup of data is stored on local disks instead of multiple disks.
Dynamic Failover Protection: it provides continuous network operation. Suppose if our system fails in between, or some other maintenance problem occurs due to which it enables built-in redundancy and automatic rerouting of traffic, even then our operation will work.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

Long-term Evolution abbreviated as LTE. We make use of LTE to refer to wireless broadband and other mobile network technologies. LTE standard was developed by the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) in 2004.


Page 5 of 5

About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.

Related Articles